More common conditions: cystitis, urinary stones, acute and chronic renal failure.
Additional tests that may be performed: blood test, urinalysis, cystoscopy, kidney ultrasound, bladder ultrasound.
Cystitis is the presence of inflammation of the lining of the bladder. This can be manifested by pain when the horse urinates, increased frequency of urination, the presence of haematuria (blood in the urine) etc.
Urinary calculi are rare but can cause significant pain. They can cause a urinary obstruction preventing the normal flow of urine and in some cases cause the bladder to rupture as a result. Treatment is usually surgical.
Renal failure means that the kidney is unable to perform its normal function of filtering the blood to remove waste products via the urine. The clinical signs most commonly associated with this condition are weight loss, decreased appetite, increased drinking and increased urine output.
Blood analysis in the case of urological problems allows us to evaluate the function of the kidneys, the state of hydration of the animal, the presence of infection etc.
Urinalysis can give a lot of information. Urine density can be assessed to see if the kidney is able to concentrate urine normally. The presence of blood, inflammatory cells, proteins, pH and other parameters are also analysed using a urine dipstick. Microscopic analysis is also possible to determine whether cells or crystals are present.
Cystoscopy is an imaging technique that consists of visualising the urinary system using a camera. The endoscope (camera) is inserted through the urethra (at the penis in males and at the vulva in mares) into the bladder. This allows the mucous membrane of the bladder and the emission of urine through the ureters to be visualised. The visualisation of the bladder with the endoscope allows, among other things, the diagnosis of pathologies such as cystitis (inflammation of the bladder) or the detection of the presence of bladder stones or tumour masses etc.
Ultrasound is a medical imaging examination that allows the structure of the kidney to be visualised. Deformities, cysts, kidney stones, etc. can be detected.
Ultrasound is a medical imaging test to assess the bladder, for example to determine whether bladder stones are present or whether the bladder lining is inflamed or thickened.