Most laparoscopic procedures are performed in the standing horse using just a sedation and local anesthesia, A camera (laparoscope) and some instruments are inserted through some small incisions in the flank. Dr.Tom Mariën invented some laparoscopic techniques and was the first surgeon in the world to perform the laparoscopic closure of the nephrosplenic space, the inguinal mesh herniorrhaphy and a laparoscopic nephrectomy (removal of a kidney). These techniques are now used in the rest of the world.
Minimal invasive laparoscopy is also used to explore the abdomen for adhesions, tumors and abscesses. Biopsies can be taken from intestines and other organs.